Thursday, July 2, 2020

A Doll’s House from a Sociological Criticism - 1100 Words

A Doll's House from a Sociological Criticism (Essay Sample) Content: Studentà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s name: Instructor: Course: Date: A Dollà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s House from a Sociological Criticism Literary criticism plays an important function in the interpretation of a text. Typically, various approaches are utilized in such a process including formalism, reader-response and sociological to name but a few. Usually, these methods take different routes in the interpretation depending on the chosen style. As a result, literary criticism completed using a sociological approach will be different from one done in biographical or feminism criticisms. While some of these approaches focus primarily on the content, others connect the authorà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s life with a story. Still, others focus mainly on the historical context of the story and correlate it with the authorà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s assertions. For this paper, sociological criticism will be utilized in the interpretation of Henrik Ibsenà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s A Dollà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s House play. Usually, a sociological criticism correlates a manà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s relationships with othersà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ in society, busines s, politics and religion. An important component of sociological criticism is the analysis of the relationship existing between characters in a story and their society (Pederson 211). In the first scene of the play, a couple of issues come out including how the characters behave in the society. For instance, Nora is Torvald Helmerà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s wife with a secret related to a loan. Kristine Linde is Noraà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s former schoolmate struggling with life as a result of her husbandà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s demise. Krogstad seems to be a man struggling with life and is on the verge of losing his job at the bank where Torvald is a manager. Ironically, Krogstad knows about Noraà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s crime of forgetting her fatherà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s signature to acquire the loan (Ibsen and Haldeman-Julius 15). From this scene, one can realize that the man at the center of the episode is Torvald Helmer since all the characters in the scene are connected to him. Another important component of sociological criticism is that it analyzes how a story addresses societal issues including gender, class and race. In this story, these issues are addressed. For instance, it seems that the female gender revered men evidenced by Noraà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s anxiety to reveal she took a loan. Also, men appeared to have negative perceptions toward women as evidenced by Torvaldà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s treatment of Nora. Upon arriving home from shopping, Torvald accuses Nora or being a spendthrift. Worse still, Torvald goes on to use other demeaning words such as à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"singing larkà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢, à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"songbirdà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ little squirrelà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ and even à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"a dollà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ (Ibsen and Haldeman-Julius 18). Moreover, the mistreatment of women was not limited to Torvald. Prior to getting married to Torvald, Nora endured similar treatment from her father who "played with me just as I used to play with my dolls" ( 20). Social class is distinct as well and confirmed by the authorà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s revelation that Krogstad is a low-level employee of the bank. Additionally, it is upheld in another case where it is revealed that Mrs. Linde was once in love with Krogstad. Apparently, Mrs. Linde left Krogstad ostensibly for a richer man who would support her (Ibsen and Haldeman-Julius 35). The economy is one of the social forces evident in this play and affects people differently. For instance, because Torvald is economically stable, Krogstad has to beg Nora to be reinstated in his position. Similarly, since Nora engaged in a forgery activity, she has to endure Krogstadà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s blackmail instead of being transparent with the husband. Additionally, the microcosm is a clear reflection of the macrocosm in various ways. For instance, the small world existing between these parties is one that relationships are suffering because of poor communication. By the same token, some parties such as Krogstad and Linde are struggling financially. It is the same with the macrocosm- the larger world- where people outside the play could be struggling with similar issues. Dr. Rankà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s condition that eventually leads to his death is a clear indication of incurable diseases both in the microcosm and macrocosm. Evidently, there is Marxism in this story whereby the people seen as having money seem to control those with little. A case in point is when Torvald keeps criticizing Nora for a perceived blatant overspending (Ibsen and Haldeman-Julius 28). Also, it is present in a scenario where Mrs. Linde is offered job by Torvald upon her request for the same. In this case, Torvald decides on Mrs. Lindeà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s fate the same way capitalism determines how low income-earning people live. Another case of capitalism entails Noraà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s decision to borrow money secretly to pay for the husbandà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s sickness. Apparently, the decision to keep this information secretive was because Nora knew the husbandà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s pride and ego could be hurt. Also, sociological criticism also addresses how characters respond to the various types of government (Gaus 22). Some of these government styles include democracy, socialism, fascism, communism, and dictatorship. Predominantly, the play depicts a dictatorial type of government. For instance, Torvald is a dictatorial husband who hardly listens to anyone challenging his decisions. One tendency evident in a dictatorial government is a refusal to accept a varied opinion (Geenens 80). Despite passionate pleas from Nora not to fire Krogstad, Torvald eventually goes ahead with the decision. Another common attribute of a dictatorial regime is suppression of subordinates. Torvald views both Nora and Krogstad as juniors and thus their opinions and positi...

Tuesday, June 30, 2020

Contribution Of Women In The Civil War - Free Essay Example

When it comes to the evaluation of the significance of the Civil War, many tend to put emphasis on the relationship between the races as well as the desire of one party, the Confederacy, to maintain the preferred social order, namely slavery. However, there is another kind of relations that is often overlooked when it comes to the analysis of this armed conflict gender relationships. While many believe that the war in question was fought by men against men, the contribution of women tends to be in the shadow and is perceived as less significant. This is a serious historical injustice since when all aspects of that time are taken into account, one will be able to notice that women contributed to the war effort from both sides significantly. During the Civil War women provided war relief, served as nurses, soldiers, and even spies which makes them an inseparable part of that armed conflict. Women Providing War Relief To begin with, it is worth focusing on the place that women traditionally occupied in the society in the eighteenth century. Being deprived of a chance to get education, they usually worked as manual workers and were employed at jobs of varying difficulty[1]. It is obvious that wives of upper-class men did not work, but the important point to be mentioned here is that the division of labor was largely performed based on stereotypical gender characteristics[2]. As a result, during the Civil War women would often make a contribution that they did during the peaceful times, but on a larger scale: they would cook food, repair clothes, take care of the laundry and so on. No matter how insignificant one might see this, this kind of war effort was essential for keeping an army operational. That is why there is a lot ofinjustice in the fact that this contribution of women has been overlooked by many. In addition to that, there were also activities that contributed to the war efforts and were not considered to be a stereotypical womens work. A good example is Sanitary Fair which was hosted in Chicago in 1863: this was an event that was designed to raise money for the army[3]. One should point out that at the time this was considered to be a significant step in letting women do some important social job as prior to that women also organized some fund-raising events, but they were not directly linked to any significant social issues. Therefore, the ability of women to find money for the army was greatly valued at the time because money was needed to ensure that the funding did not stop which contributed to the ultimate victory of the military forces. Women Serving as Nurses Now, it may be logical to turn to another aspect of the contribution of women to the war efforts serving as nurses. In spite of the fact that today female nurses on the battlefield are seen as something ordinary, it was quite a big novelty at the time. Florence Nightingale set an example during the Crimean War which inspired numerous women all over the world. Many women, for example, Dorothea Dix, would become full-time nurses during the war[4]. If one develops a broad perspective on this issue, one will be able to notice that it was indeed a serious step forward since it showed that women can do something more than just their domestic chores on a large scale. Once again, it is worth mentioning that seeing women as nurses were quite unusual at the time; so, the women who volunteered to be nurses were extremely brave. However, it is not only administration of hospitals and taking care of the wounded that women did as nurses. There were numerous examples of nurses that would go the battlefield and help the soldiers under such extremely dangerous conditions. Clara Barton is one of such nurses: she took care of the soldiers not only in the hospital, but also during th? battles; that is why she received an honorary title Angel of the Battlefield[5]. The key point that needs to be emphasized here is that by allowing women on the battlefield, the military acknowledged that women were able to make a significant contribution that was highly valued. According to the laws of the time, women were banned from the military; therefore, their presence on the battlefield as nurses as close as they could get to make a direct contribution to the war effort without violating the applicable laws. Women Serving as Soldiers As it has already been mentioned, the laws of the time prohibited women from serving in the army. However, it is suggested that as many as over 400 women were able to find their way into the military by disguising themselves as men[6]. For modern day people, this might sound somewhat unbelievable; however, after all, aspects have been considered, one might find that this was quite possible. The example of Frances Clayton is quite interesting: she disguised herself as Frances Clalin and served as a soldier[7]. It is quite obvious that at the time the need for soldiers was high; so, the recruiters did not question a person who was willing to volunteer. The important point to note here is that such example as that of Clayton shows that women were dissatisfied with the place that they had in the society and were willing to make a contribution to the war effort as much as men did. It may be rather difficult to estimate the actual number of women who served in the army during the Civil War for a number of reasons. First of all, they directly violated the applicable legislation which meant that neither them, nor the army would actually report that number since it was against the rules. In addition to that, the only war for women to be discovered was when they were examined by the doctors in the hospital after they were wounded. That is why it is quite possible that many women died on the battlefield and were not ever discovered. In addition to that, they might have refrained from going to the hospital because they knew that that would destroy their disguise. All this leads to the understanding that there is evidence that many women were willing to contribute to the war effort as much as men did. Women Serving as Spies Finally, there is one last aspect that needs to be mentioned when it comes to evaluating the contribution of women during the Civil War many of them served as spied. Given all the roles that were mentioned above, namely a war relief worker, a nurse, and a soldier, one might speculate that being a spy is the most extreme role that women were able to play during the war. From the letters of Sarah E. Thompson, we know that she did her best to serve the Union as much as she could. Though she may have simply talked to some soldiers and visited balls, she was actually collecting important information that was later needed by the army[8]. That is why it is possible that womens ability to affect men and maintain interesting conversation appeared to be quite helpful during the war. The important point that needs to be mentioned specifically is that there were female spies on both sides. For example, Rose ONeal served as a spy for the Confederacy and warned her friend in personal correspondence about the importance of sending correct information, which can be used so as to counteract the Yankee accounts[9]. This shows that ONeal understood the basics of information warfare and tried to do her best to spread the truthful information about her friends so that they would get an objective view of the actions of the Confederate army. With this in mind, one might speculate that this woman was way ahead of her time because she understood the role that information played during the war. As a result, one might come to the understanding that women were able to play all kind of roles during the Civil War. Conclusion Having examined all the points that were mentioned in the paragraphs above, one is able to come to the following conclusion: during the Civil, War women assumed a wide variety of roles ranging from stereotypical to most extreme. Thus, women served as war relief workers and performed their domestic duties on a large scale. This was considered to be the most appropriate way for women to make their contribution to the war effort. Some women were brave enough to serve as nurses: they took care of the soldiers on and behind the battlefield. These women were greatly inspired by the example of Florence Nightingale. There also were women who disguised themselves as soldiers and fought with men. The only time their true identity was discovered was when they were wounded and required medical attention. Finally, the evidence shows that there were many women who served as spies. Bibliography Beard, Rick. From Civil War to Civil Rights: The Opportunities of the Civil War. History News 66, no. 3 (2011): 12-18. Devine, Shauna. To Make Something Out of the Dying in This War: The Civil War and the Rise of American Medical Science. Journal of the Civil War Era 6, no. 2 (2016): 149-63. Madway, Lorraine. Purveying Patriotic Pageantry: The Civil War Sanitary Fairs in New York. New York History 93, no. 4 (2012): 268-301. doi:10.2307/newyorkhist.93.4.268. Marshall, Anne E. A Sisters War: Kentucky Women and Their Civil War Diaries The Register of the Kentucky Historical Society 110, no. 3/4 (2012): 481-502. ONeal, Rose. Letter to Alexander Boteler. n.d. Accessed April 07, 2018. Sizer, Lyde Cullen. Mapping the Spaces of Womens Civil War History. Journal of the Civil War Era 1, no. 4 (2011): 536-48. Szpila, Kathleen. Lest We Forget: Ellen Ryan Jolly and the Nuns of the Battlefield Monument. American Catholic Studies 123, no. 4 (2012): 23-43. Thompson, Sarah E. Sarah Thompsons Account of Morgans Defeat. n.d. Accessed April 07, 2018. Valentine, Hannah. Letter to Michael Valentine from Hannah Valentine. n.d. Accessed April 07, 2018. [1] Devine, Shauna To Make Something Out of the Dying in This War: The Civil War and the Rise of American Medical Science. Journal of the Civil War Era 6, no. 2 (2016), 149. [2] Hannah Valentine, Letter to Michael Valentine from Hannah Valentine, n.d., accessed April 07, 2018, [3] Marshall, Anne E. A Sisters War: Kentucky Women and Their Civil War Diaries The Register of the Kentucky Historical Society 110, no. 3/4 (2012), 492. [4] Szpila, Kathleen. Lest We Forget: Ellen Ryan Jolly and the Nuns of the Battlefield Monument. American Catholic Studies 123, no. 4 (2012), 30. [5] Sizer, Lyde Cullen Mapping the Spaces of Womens Civil War History. Journal of the Civil War Era 1, no. 4 (2011), 540. [6] Madway, Lorraine. Purveying Patriotic Pageantry: The Civil War Sanitary Fairs in New York. New York History 93, no. 4 (2012), 275. [7] Beard, Rick. From Civil War to Civil Rights: The Opportunities of the Civil War. History News 66, no. 3 (2011), 15. [8] Sarah E. Thompson, Sarah Thompsons Account of Morgans Defeat, n.d., accessed April 07, 2018, [9] Rose ONeal, Letter to Alexander Boteler, n.d., , accessed April 07, 2018,

Tuesday, May 19, 2020

Biological Criminal Behavior Essay - 1349 Words

Biological Criminal Behavior and Angela Yates Ceretha Butler, Angela De Libero, Tameka James, Sam Price, Michael Palazuelos CJA/314 5/20/2013 Professor Judy Mazzucca Biological Criminal Behavior Through-out history criminal intents have escalade from small crime to federal crimes seen in cases today. Research have proven genes influence the outcome of a behavior in a criminal behavior and the type of attach committed to his or her victim. This crimes are taught in the school of crime into five different steps to help during a crime investigation. One of these cases is Andrea Yates, who committed a horrific crime on her family. This paper will explain the changes in history of crime and the procedures done in a crime.†¦show more content†¦103). Richard Louis Dugdale (1841-1883) published a study of a family in 1877, they were the Juke family. He followed the Juke family ancestry back to a notorious character named Max, a Dutch immigrant who landed in New York in the early 1700s. Two of Max’s sons wed into the notorious â€Å"Juke family of girls,† six sisters, all of whom was noted to be illegitimate. Max’s male ancestors were alleged to be vicious, and one woman known as Ada had a real bad reputation and had an alias of â€Å"the mother of criminals.† At the time of the study, Dugdale was able to identify about 1,200 of Ada’s ancestors; amongst them were seven murderers, 60 habitual thieves, 90 or more other type criminals, 50 prostitutes, and 280 paupers. This research shows that a penchant for crime could be in the genes (Chapter 4, pp.104). This Enlightenment led to the development of the Classical School. According to Schmalleger (2012), in the late 1700s and early 1800s, Classical Schools were viewed as a criminological perspective that had roots in the Enlightenment and was said that humans are rational beings, that crimes are the result of an individual’s exercise of free will, and punishment is effective in reducing crime because it negates the pleasure to be derived from crime commission (Chapter 3, pg. 59). The school of ClassicalShow MoreRelatedBiological Criminal Behavior1805 Words   |  8 PagesBiological Criminal Behavior The studies of biological behaviors have shown that criminals with a passion for their crime tend to have a genetic or physiological issue that plays a major part in their criminal activities. Gary Ridgway and John Hinckley Jr. portrayed significant degrees of physiological issues that may have contributed to the crimes they committed. Lack of education, moral support, love, and self-accomplishments may have also provided behaviors out of the norm. Criminal activitiesRead MoreBiological Explanations of Criminal Behavior1430 Words   |  6 PagesBiological Explanations of Criminal Behavior Nature and nurture contribute to the way a person behaves. This can be applied to the behaviors of criminals. According to Fishbein (1990, pg.37), â€Å"behavior [is] primarily attributed to inherited predispositions and genetic influences.† Nurture is the environmental influence that shape human behavior (Fishbein, 1990, pg.37). Human genetics and environmental factors contribute to the uniqueness to a person’s behavior. However, there are underlyingRead MoreBiological Theories Of Criminal Behavior844 Words   |  4 PagesBiological Theories are vastly growing with fascinating research. The main stump is concretely linking it to criminal behavior, because some theories are more relatable than others. Theories involving temperament and hormones give real life biological explanations, while others like extrovert and introvert behaviors, and neuroticism explain a weaker link to crime. However, all theories are valuable in exploring the root of crime. Temperament can be described as the natural mood disposition determinedRead MoreBiological Criminal Behavior Essay1855 Words   |  8 PagesBiological Criminal Behavior Jordan Miller, Amy Showers, Sarah Wilson, Myron Reynolds, Cristine Saldate, Aisha Peeples CJA 314 May 14, 2012 Alonzo Medina Biological Criminal Behavior People perceive that crime, primarily violent crimes, such as murder, is the most serious crime society faces in modern times. This has led to efforts by many research groups to attempt to find the cause of such criminal behavior. The focus of such research is biological issues with the belief that a biologicalRead MoreEssay about Biological Criminal Behavior1053 Words   |  5 Pageswithin the behavior of an individual that can be linked to the specific behaviors demonstrated by an offender that would classify them as a psychopath. Along with other research that looks into an individual’s genetics to see if that plays a role in defining or making a psychopath. John Allen Muhammad, also known as the D.C. sniper, was labeled as a psychopath when he terrorized D.C. for two weeks, taking thirteen victims and killing ten of them. This paper will go over the behaviors that constituteRead MoreThe Biological And Psychological Theories Of Crime And Criminal Behavior1764 Words   |  8 PagesCrime is adaptation to life stress. It is best understood in terms of the manner in which the individual experiences the biological, psychological and socially determined situations of his existence. (Halleck, 1967, p. 63) The modern police department was born out of urban mob violence that tormented the nation’s cities during the nineteenth century. The new police departments were replacements for the night-watch systems and relegated constables and sheriffs to serving court orders and running jailsRead MoreEssay about CJA 314 biological criminal behavior1492 Words   |  6 PagesBiological Criminal Behavior CJA/314 â€Æ' Biological Criminal Behavior Andrea Yates had battled with postpartum depression for years and on June 20, 2001, she drowned all five children in the bathtub of her home. Ultimately the underlining cause of her actions was caused by postpartum psychosis that was triggered by Andrea’s improper use of her medication, failure to adhere to her doctor’s advice after treatment, and her lack of knowledge of coping techniques commonly used by women who sufferRead MoreEssay Biological Explanations of Criminal Behaviour1357 Words   |  6 Pagesmisunderstood phenomenon with no concrete evidence when it comes to human behavior. Throughout time there have been endless amounts of crime theories, few of which revolve around biological explanations. We have Cesare Lombroso and the Positive School who thought that criminals were genetically different from the rest of the general population, that they were biologically aggressive, had criminal traits and/or born as criminals. There is also William Sheldonâ€℠¢s theory of body types, called the somatotypeRead MoreThe Rational Choice and Biological Trait Theories Essay1748 Words   |  7 PagesCriminals have been committing crimes for centuries, and they are always fooling the police detectives and federal agencies sometimes. If the justice departments would actually look at the persons thought processes and reasoning before a crime is committed, the justice departments will be able to answer the reason for the crime. The different departments could possibly figure out why the criminal did what they did in the first. For instance, they should use a couple of criminology theories to helpRead MoreWhy People Commit Crime Is Not An Easy Task1105 Words   |  5 Pagesfor criminal behavior and the factors that flow with them. Criminologists have developed many theories or perspectives of crime. The perspectives recognize the cause of crime by the related qualifies of criminals and populations with high crime rates. Two perspectives of crime s tood out from the wide variety, biological and psychological. In some cases biological and psychological explanations of crime run hand in hand, however the two perspectives focus on very different products of criminal behavior

Congenital Left Ventricular Outpouching ( Lvo ) - 1685 Words

Congenital left ventricular outpouching (LVO) is an uncommon perinatal diagnosis. Various terms used in the medical literature to describe the LVO are a source of perplexity. The novel classification developed in a recent review by Rad et al attempting to provide a clear differentiation of the mixed definitions based on anatomical and cardiac imaging data. Our report presents a case series of prenatal diagnosis of LVO. The application of Rad et al original classification and its impact on the patients’ outcome are discussed. Introduction: Congenital left ventricular outpouching (LVO) is a rare disorder in which a confined protrusion arises from the left ventricular (LV) free wall. The terms LV aneurysm, LV diverticulum, double-chambered LV and LV accessory chamber have been used interchangeably in the literature [1–9], however anatomical differences do exist between these terms [10]. LV aneurysm is an expansible thin-walled, usually fibrotic myocardium and pericardium, pouch contracting in asynchrony with the LV and has a wide communication with the LV cavity. Conversely, an LV diverticulum has three cardiac wall layers (endocardium, myocardium and pericardium), contracts in synchrony with the LV and has a narrow connection to LV. LV accessory chamber presents an entity that combines some criteria of both aneurysm and diverticulum. Its wall is similar to a diverticulum but it has a wide communication with the LV as an aneurysm. Lastly, double-chambered leftShow MoreRelatedCongenital Left Ventricular Outpouching ( Lvo )1782 Words   |  8 PagesIntroduction: Congenital left ventricular outpouching (LVO) is a rare disorder in which a confined protrusion arises from the left ventricular (LV) free wall. The terms LV aneurysm, LV diverticulum, double-chambered LV and LV accessory chamber have been used interchangeably in the literature [1–9], however anatomical differences do exist between these terms [10]. LV aneurysm is an expansible thin-walled, usually fibrotic myocardium and pericardium, pouch contracting in asynchrony with the LV and

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Bilingual Education Does NOT Assimilate Non-English...

Bilingual Education Does NOT Assimilate Non-English Speaking Students Lo siento seà ±or. No he aprendido hablar inglà ©s. No puedo ayudarlo. (Im sorry Sir. I didnt learn to speak English. I cant help you.) When visiting McDonalds and having a non-English speaking person taking your order, one becomes frustrated with the lack of appreciation for learning English. Today, schools in Arizona no longer have true bilingual education classes; they have almost all Spanish instruction with limited English instruction. From the time bilingual education for Spanish was instituted in 1973, it has been ineffective in assimilating non-English speaking students into the English-speaking American society. The bilingual education programs†¦show more content†¦Bilingual education is to be thought of as no more than a transitional bridge to assimilation (Duignan). Bilingual education was formed so the majority of time English would be the language taught in and the native tongue of the students would be limited. Using this method, the students learn English faster and can work with the rest of their English speaking peers. If the two amounts of languages are switched so that there is mostly Spanish and limited English, then the learning would go at a slower pace. English is needed here in America and keeping these children from learning it just hurts them. If English is learned at a slower pace, it will not be learned to the proficiency that is needed. When youre talking about language, English is essential for success in this country (Ferraro) A third reason why the bilingual education system in place now isnt doing its job, is that there are many students who abuse the system too easily and they get away with it. Bilingual educators were accused of disregarding such developments; they often admitted children who were proficient in English to bilingual programs and kept them there too long. A U.S. Office of Education ­sponsored investigation of thirty-eight bilingual projects for Hispanic Americans judged that about 70 percent of the pupils involved used English rather than Spanish for the purpose of taking tests. (Duignan) These children stay in the bilingual classes because theyShow MoreRelatedReceived Pronunciation: Historical Background and Application17580 Words   |  71 PagesARTSAKH STATE UNIVERSITY English Language Department A Thesis to Acquire Master’s Degree Received Pronunciation: Historical Background and Application Performer: Hamest Mkrtchyan Superviser: Narine Hairiyan Stepanakert 2010 Contents Introduction Chapter I. The Evolution of Received Pronunciation 1.1 Spread of English 1.2 The origin of RP and its definitions Chapter II RP and Non–RP: similarities and difference 2.1 Changes in theRead MoreIgbo Dictionary129408 Words   |  518 PagesonaryDictionary of Ònà ¬Ã¯â‚¬ ¬chà   Igbo 2nd edition of the Igbo dictionary, Kay Williamson, Ethiope Press, 1972. Kay Williamson († ) This version prepared and edited by Roger Blench Roger Blench Mallam Dendo 8, Guest Road Cambridge CB1 2AL United Kingdom Voice/ Fax. 0044-(0)1223-560687 Mobile worldwide (00-44)-(0)7967-696804 E-mail To whom all correspondence should be addressed. This printout: November 16, 2006 TABLE OF CONTENTS Abbreviations:Read More65 Successful Harvard Business School Application Essays 2nd Edition 147256 Words   |  190 Pages BUSINESS SCHOOL HARVARD SUCCESSFUL 65 APPLICATION SECOND EDITION E S S AY S APPLICATION BUSINESS SCHOOL HARVARD SUCCESSFUL 65 ECSNS A IYI O N S SE O D ED T With Analysis by the Staff of The Harbus, the Harvard Business School Newspaper ST. MARTIN’S GRIFFIN NEW YORK 65 SUCCESSFUL HARVARD BUSINESS SCHOOL APPLICATION ESSAYS, SECOND EDITION. Copyright  © 2009 byThe Harbus News Corporation. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of AmericaRead MoreFundamentals of Hrm263904 Words   |  1056 Pages This online teaching and learning environment integrates the entire digital textbook with the most effective instructor and student resources With WileyPLUS: Students achieve concept mastery in a rich, structured environment that’s available 24/7 Instructors personalize and manage their course more effectively with assessment, assignments, grade tracking, and more manage time better study smarter save money From multiple study paths, to self-assessment, to a wealth of interactive visualRead MoreManagement Course: Mba−10 General Management215330 Words   |  862 PagesDimensions of Culture 5. Managing Across Cultures iv Feigenbaum−Feigenbaum: The Power of Management Capitol 1. New Management for Business Growth in a Demanding Economy Text  © The McGraw−Hill Companies, 2004 1 C H A 1 P T E R NEW MANAGEMENT FOR BUSINESS GROWTH IN A DEMANDING ECONOMY 2 Feigenbaum−Feigenbaum: The Power of Management Capitol 1. New Management for Business Growth in a Demanding Economy Text  © The McGraw−Hill Companies, 2004 Feigenbaum−Feigenbaum:Read MoreStrategic Human Resource Management View.Pdf Uploaded Successfully133347 Words   |  534 PagesHuman Resource Management, Second Edition by Charles R. Greer Copyright  © 2001, 1995 by Prentice-Hall, Inc. A Pearson Education Company Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 Compilation Copyright  © 2003 by Pearson Custom Publishing All rights reserved. This copyright covers material written expressly for this volume by the editor/s as well as the compilation itself. It does not cover the individual selections herein that first appeared elsewhere. ii Permission to reprint these has been

Sexual Assault And Sexual Abuse - 978 Words

Sexual assault is any type of sexual contact or behavior that occurs without the explicit consent of the recipient. Falling under the definition of sexual assault are sexual activities such as forced sexual intercourse forcible sodomy child molestation fondling attempted rape The Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act was passed in the United States, and its definition of who might be covered under the law included sexual abuse. 1 In 6 Women in the united states and 1 in 33 men have experienced an attempted or actual rape as a child 3 out of 5 sexual assault victims stated the offender was an intimate, relative, friend, or acquaintance sexual and physical abuse occur in childhood and adolescence, the chance for revictimization increases In recent years individuals have become increasingly aware of the phenomenon of rape and other forms of sexual abuse. The new awareness appears to have steered in a greater sensitivity to and advocacy for the rights and needs of survivors. An estimated 60% of perpetrators of sexual abuse are known to the child but are not family members, e.g., family friends, babysitters, child care providers, neighbors. About 30% of perpetrators of child sexual abuse are family members. Only about 10% of perpetrators of child sexual abuse are strangers to the child. In a 2012 maltreatment report, of the victims who were sexually abused, 26% were in the age group of 12–14 years and 34% were younger than 9 years. Approximately 1.8 million adolescentsShow MoreRelatedSexual Abuse And Sexual Assault Essay1290 Words   |  6 Pagesphrase sexual abuse we all have a tendency to assume the victim is a female. It is only a myth that males are not sexually assaulted, or that it only happens in while incarcerated. Sexual assaults can happen to anyone no matter their age, sex, orientation, or even identity. 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Pharmacodynamics and Potential Adverse Effects

Question: Describe about the Pharmacodynamics and Potential Adverse Effects? Answer: A: Pharmacokinetics- This concept refers to the manner a body usually reacts to various drugs. This explains largely about physiological matter which occurs once the drug enters into a body. However, the concept of pharmacokinetics includes absorption, breakdown, distribution and clearance of drugs from a human body. B: Pharmacodynamics: This concept relates to the biochemical as well as physiological processes underpinning actions of drugs, that is mechanism of actions of drugs, reflecting how drugs impact upon body. It involves physical action as well as chemical actions , also through actions of receptor/enzymes. Plasma protein binding: This concept means abilities of drugs to bind proteins along with blood plasma. Considerable level of influences of plasma protein bond upon metabolism of drugs and removal of protein included drugs refers to the increment within the drugs half-life. In addition, the extent to which drug may be added to plasma proteins impacts upon its distribution in multiple ways. Binding of Plasma protein tends to lessen the drug availability for act of diffusion or transporting to the target organ of drug since generally, only the unbound drug form can capably diffusing across membranes (YOKOMASU et al., 2008). Plasma protein binding can also lessen the transportation of drugs towards nonvascular compartments like adipose tissue. On account that a highly protein-included drug intends to stay in the systemic circulation, the drug bears a relatively less volume of distribution. Co-administration of several drugs, each being is highly bound towards plasma protein may lead to a greater than expected concentration of plasma of free form including one or more drugs. This may even occur due to the competence of co-administered drugs for similar binding place upon plasma protein. Increasing concentration of free drug may have have the potential to result in enhanced therapeutic or toxic impacts of drug. 3: A patient involved in consuming anticoagulant drug warfarin must not be recommended with salicylate drug aspirin simultaneously unless these people undergo vascular surgery. It is because both of the mentioned drugs include protein bound, also that aspirin possess much stronger affinity for proteins than that of warfarin; therefore aspirin (strong binder) dislocates warfarin (weak binder). Minute amounts of drug warfarin joins to protein places and so highly active warfarin (free drug) exists within the blood, quite like administering dos enhanced age of warfarin. It may poison the patient as well as result in heavy bleeding, and sometimes even prove more fatal, as warfarin is considered as a highly toxic drug as well as aspirin is said to intensify actions as well as effects of the drugs. Aspirin is said to offer alternatives to individuals that possessed blood clots within the deep veins. It usually never bears the prolonged utilization thinner blood. On the other side, prolonged utilization of warfarin is not appropriate at all and rather inconvenient (Yang and Rodrigues, 2010). Thus, using aspirin within the administered anticoagulant can impact upon the block of vitamin K. Block of vitamin K restricts clotting of blood which gets increased at the time of preparing fibrin. The aspirin when utilized to care for the patients, these drugs do not restrict the blood chemical from working thrombin. 4: Hepatic first pass effect means the process in which drugs pass to the bloodstream or even the lymph directly from the intestine, and from there towards the liver to get metabolised as well as largely destroyed. The importance of emphasizing upon hepatic first pass impact while administering oral drugs refers to the fact that majority of drugs are usually metabolized by liver. Here, only a small amount of any active drug moves from liver to any other circulatory systems. But, availability of the drug may be referred as considerably lessened by the first pass technique. Other means of drug administration like intravenous, sublingual, intramuscular and suppository may in fact evade such first pass effect since they allow drug absorption into systemic circulation (Wright, 2000). Main four primary systems which impact first pass effect of drugs are the enzymes of the gastrointestinal lumen, bacterial enzymes, gut wall enzymes, and hepatic enzymes. The drug absorption is specifically d etermined by the bioavailability of drugs like a drug which bears poor absorption when these are administered orally may be induced using different routes like intravenously or inhalation for example. 5: Half life: This concept refers to required time in the process of concentration of serum plasma within the human body for decreasing to half (50%); at least four or five half-lives to steady state. Prescribers often face several potential issues related to drugs administration; nevertheless quite imperative for these prescribers to accept factors which impact half life of drug like that of structure of drug, individual ability of drug metabolising, age, weight, lipophilic nature of the drug, stomach acidity (pH) and that of intestines (Bae et al., 2009). 6: The concept of Steady state concentration of drug means concentration achieved on administering drug equally to the quantity of drug removed within single dosing interval leading to a constant level of serum drug. As repeated drug doses are administered, the plasma concentration develops that reaches a level of steady state. It is when the level of drug within the plasma has developed a concentration extent which is therapeutically effective. As long as regular doses would be administered for balancing the level of drug that is cleared the drug would remain active(Banker and Clark, 2008). The normal time that is taken for reaching the steady state is around four or five times the half life of such a drug. 7: Characteristics of enzymes: In a chemical manner, normally enzymes are globular proteins (for instance, molecules of RNA and ribosome) that are basically found within nuclear cellular areas. These enzymes are basic reactants which usually break down highly complex chemical compounds. These permit occurrence of chemical reaction which has a fast property suitable for supporting life. These enzymes are not changed at the time of chemical reaction, remain available only in small amounts within cells; however, these are quite specific for their own substrate. The distinction between competitive as well as non-competitive inhibition refers to the fact that during competitive inhibition process, drug normally resembles that of an enzyme substrate or natural receptor, and so said to compete with specific natural substrate to bind into the site of binding upon the enzyme(Caldwell, 2005). For instance, specific antimicrobials like sulphonamides as well as bactrim possess same structure of para-4-aminobenzoic acid (PABA). The sulphonamides is said to compete to bind to any enzyme which prepares folic acid from PABA; so this inhibits chemical reaction. During the process of non-competitive inhibition, normally drug does not reflect natural substrate, yet binds to another alternative place upon the enzyme, and then changes the entire structure of the receptor or enzyme so that no longer it may bind with any natural substrate. For instance, heavier metals such as mercury, arsenic, carbon monoxide usually bind irreversibly with haemoglobin at place apart from oxygen. 8: Agonist usually refers to a drug that changes the physiology of any cell by means of bind with a plasma membrane or even intracellular receptors like nor-adrenaline or nor-epinephrine. Antagonist means a drug which blocks the receptor to prevent endogenous neurotransmitters from binding. Any drug which acts as an antagonist actually blocks responses initiated by agonists. Here, Atropine is said to work by binding with any acetylcholine receptors at nerve synapse, thereby allowing no messages to transmit (Chengliang, 2012). Main impacts of atropine include an increase of heart rate along with sometimes a tachycardia and inhibition of secretions (that causes a dry mouth) as well as relaxation of smooth muscle within the gut, biliary tree or urinary tract. As atropine passes the barrier of blood brain, central nervous system impacts may be experienced like during amnesia, confusion or excitation. Dilation of pupil as well as paralysis of accommodation takes place, along with an enhancement of intraocular pressure particularly within patients suffering from glaucoma (Doern, 2001). Other advantageous impacts of such atropine are its ability for decreasing gastrointestinal secretions, gastric juice, and motility specifically for patients having peptic ulcers. 9: Phenelzine as well as broad beans: both these drugs have impacts upon serotonin which is a chemical existent in brain. If these substances get combined, possibility of danger may arise that may cause severe effects with excessive accumulation of chemical serotonin within the brain. Tetracyclines as well as antacids: at some phase antacids include aluminium that may combine along with tetracycline including the amount of it absorbed within the body and this may be reduced drastically (EL-LAKKANY and NOSSEIR, 2007). Therefore, lesser effective tetracycline would be available within the body for utilizing. Therefore, it may fail to prove effective in targeting or even fighting infections. Alcohol as well as diazepam: Alcohol as well as diazepam form central nervous system depressants which mean that they may reduce activity of brain. Consequently, consumption of alcohol during ongoing treatment with this diazepam can cause serious negative reactions resulting in impaired judgment. For daily consumption of alcohol, often liver enzymes get stimulated constantly that induces tolerance towards the drug and thereby reducing the impacts(Tominaga, 2002). Part of the autonomic nervous system of Mr.FT which is affected by Malathion constitutes parasympathetic nervous system. Like all organophosphate insecticides, Malathion inhibits the acetylcholinesterase as well as alters transmission of cholinergic synaptic. Hence, when parasympathetic division gets activated, it would lead to production of some major effects such as pupil constriction, secretion from digestive glands like that of salivation, duodenal glands, gastric glands, pancreas, intestinal glands, and the liver, also vomiting as well as diarrhoea, enhanced activity of smooth muscle with gastrointestinal tract, decreased heart rate, constriction of bronchi and also negative inotropic impacts, contracting of urinary bladder during urination, and relaxation of rectum at the time of defecation (Hee Lee, 2000). Various sorts of tissue receptor which are likely to get affected are that of muscarinic (located at junction of cholinergic neuromuscular within division of parasympathetic, also some within sympathetic division) as well as nicotinic (located upon surfaces of ganglionic cells of parasympathetic as well as sympathetic divisions located at the junction of neuromuscular belonging to somatic nervous system) receptors (Savarese, 2005). Mechanism of Organophosphate insecticides in toxicity refers to the acetylcholinesterase inhibition, causing an accumulation of neurotransmitter acetylcholine as well as continuous stimulation of receptors of acetylcholine. The Organophosphate insecticides is said to induce the parasympathetic nervous system with an enzyme named phosphorylating acetylcholinesterase (that binds irreversibly along with that of acetylcholinesterase) at every nerve ending. The enzyme Acetylcholinesterase is breaks down acetylcholine within the junction of neuromuscular. It causes a loss of acetylcholinesterase in order that effecter organ gets overstimulated with immense of acetylcholine at nerve ending (Hui, 2012). The mechanism is said to impact both muscarinic as well as nicotinic receptors within parasympathetic as well as sympathetic systems along with that of neuromuscular junctions. Organophosphate insecticides usually resemble that of clinical drugs named anticholinesterase in context to its action. Thus, the clinical drug groups are quite similar in context to their actions- physostigmine, neostigmine; but these drugs often have reversible impacts(Jusko, 2012). It shows that these drugs may possess capability to displace the insecticides from those enzymes, thereby reactivating the activity of cholinesterase. Further, drug like echothiophate iodide also an irreversible organophosphate anticholinesterase used clinically. The standard process of treatment for Mr FT would include reactivation of inhibited acetylcholinesterase along with an antidote named oxime and that of pralidoxime as well as reversing of biochemical impacts of acetylcholine along with atropine. Pralidoxime Iodide: Pralidoxime is said to reverse depression of cholinesterase and so relieves both muscarinic as well as nicotinic impacts of poisoning. It is said to work with reactivating of cholinesterase including that of slowing the process of ageing of phosphorylated cholinesterase towards a non-reactivatable form (Lemley et al., 2010). Atropine Sulphate: The purpose of atropine antidotal therapy in case of organophosphate poisoning includes antagonising the impacts of increased concentrations of acetylcholine in organs with muscarinic receptors. This serves as strong blocking agent for acetylcholine but ineffective to reverse the process of inhibition of cholinesterase. The chronic disease that has been affecting people from all the age group is asthma. There is obstruction in the flow of air. It shows problems in the respiration of the individual. The National Health campaign aims at management of the Asthma of the individuals. This will improve the well being of the individuals and the severances of the symptoms of the disease will be reduced. a.) Management of Asthma long term mission The chronic symptoms causing discomfort such as breathlessness, coughing should be averted. The normal function of the pulmonary has to be preserved. Exercise has to be done to preserve the normal activity (LeWitt, 2014). The need for the visit to the emergency departments at hospitals has to be avoided. Medication with little side effects has to be taken. The management technique of families for asthma has to be followed. b.) Treatment of acute Asthma First line therapy The inflammation of the lungs is stabilized by this technique. This is done by the passage ways of the lungs are prevented from getting inflated. This is achieved by the inhalation of corticosteroids or the prophylactic agents for the attacks of asthma. An inhaled 2 agonist has to be used if the propensity to exposure increases. The bronchodilators can be combined with the nebulizer to for a patient suffering from severe attack of asthma. Oral administration of corticosteroids during the asthmatic attack can be helpful (Ra, 2014). This has helped to stop the saturation by 93%. Rectification of the hypoxic condition of a child is important to prevent the child from asthmatic attack. The treatment to the child can be provided by treating with 2 agonists. The oral way of treatment via the corticosteroids is also useful. The metered dose salbutamol inhaler is very effective in getting positive results. The inflammation of the passage of the airway characterizes Asthma. This concludes in attack by asthma creating an obstruction with the airflow through the air ways. The bulge of the mucous membrane causes the obstruction. The fluid inside the airways which is inflammatory and the muscle contraction also causes obstruction. Children Can have severe obstruction in the flow of air for having a small way for passage of air. If not avoided then smoking, respiratory infection, air pollution, fumes, airborne allergen, certain type of foods and dusts contributes to the attack in BBs in asthma. The inhale corticosteroids are very effectual (anti-inflammatory potential) manager for the control in long-term and are widely chosen by patients who grow to unrelenting asthma syndrome. Nevertheless, the use of inhaled corticosteroids therapy for control in long term concentrated on treatment of inflammatory system and has the ability to prevent the inflammation occurrence and reduce the inflammatory airway, while preventing serious symptoms of asthma and preserving control over them (Seyberth, Rane and Schwab, 2011). a) According to the encountered short-term effects after using corticosteroids inhale, the range of likely negative effects is expected to develop infections which are opportunistic in nature like the Candida albicans pharyngeal and the croaky voice concluding the immune function being suppressed of pharyngeal mucosa after utilizing the corticosteroids (Scully, 2008). It should be kept in mind as in case of the children these agents stifle the hypothalamic-pituitary region particularly when they are directed for a long time period at a very high dose. Children who suffer from mild asthma were observed with growth disturbance in short term which is a side effect of inhaling corticosteroids (Johnson, 2010). According to some data there is a propensity for affecting bone mineralization after using corticosteroids. It can also increase in the suppression of adrenal and syndrome of drug-induced Cushings as a termination (Walsh, Czervinske and DiBlasi, 2010). b) In accordance to Short term consequences which are connected with the 2 agonists, certain effects of short term were scrutinized like Tachyphylaxis that is the reduced responsiveness to the medication because of desensitization and down-regulation of the receptors in the tangential lymphocytes and the receptors present in the lungs. There are also some other negative effects considered to be minor such as, metabolic effects, headache, tremor and palpitations which are encountered relating to the quantity of the doe used (Walsh, n.d.). The ICS are the most chosen regimen for therapeutic conditions in case of children chronic asthma and as the provider of the most accessible anti-inflammatory treatment. The use of long term medication of inhaled corticosteroids ascertains potential negative effects especially on the adrenal function, the velocity of growth and the obstruction of linear growth, ocular disorders and osteoporosis. According to various proofs demonstrated that the agent of potent anti-inflammatory suppress the region of hypothalamic-pituitary which is not a sustained effect for a long term as the child reaches the height of normal as in mentioned in the 4a question. Due to the delivery of medicine being quicker after using inhaler than a nebulizer, it is preferred by many. Moreover it is a small device that can be easily carried during emergency and other necessary requirement moment. A device used with metered-dose inhalation in combination for satisfactory inhalation is known as spacer. It is a satisfactory inhalation for individuals who are not comfortable with coordination of hand-breath. However the BBs acute incident managing health team applied both spacer and inhaler ( for administering the B2 inhaled agonist by MDI) only for the reason that they permitted for better medication deliverance by increased inhalation and actuation coordination, infectious haze as it releases inhalation of meter dozed and allows having drugs with no enduring, remain in the mouth. The team of managing dis not utilizes the nebulizer because obvious benefits were not ascertained in comparison to spacer and inhaler. As moisture and warmth is combined with the use of nebulizer, it is often remarked for carrying danger of microbial contamination. In case of asthma that causes threat to life nebulizer becomes valuable when through oxygen the b2 agonist high doses are necessarily controlled. In case of Pediatric urgency, Nebulization becomes less efficient. It becomes hard to control and another disadvantage is that it is expensive cannot be transferred or carried like spacer or meter-dose inhaler and similar devices. The corticosteroid hydrocortisones strategic control helps in recovering during or after and attack of acute asthma with the duration and sternness of the acute attack and it helps to prevent relapse. The Hydrocortisone attains prompts condition of allergy and swelling in the body. In response to an allergen or irritant this hormone is discharged in the body. With the reason of providing corticosteroid to the asthmatics is to make the lining of airways calm which has been influenced by atmospheric change or irritant. When the patient is under the combined treatment for recovery form an attack of acute asthma, it is crucial to control the corticosteroids level in the body since a sudden treatment halt may conclude in shock, vomiting nausea and can eventually conclude in disturbance in the functions of adrenal. The controlling of dosage would reduce the negative effects like adrenal axis of hypothalamic-pituitary, fractures and osteoporosis because of mineralization of bone in low density and developmental disturbance. The subsequent required to be monitored: The rhythm and rate of the cardiac The blood pressure The levels of oxygen concentration and The sounds of chest It is so because they are crucial signs that will alter in retort to the treatment that allows medical practitioner for continuation and adjustments for necessary treatments. References Bae, S., Yang, K., Aryal, D., Kim, Y. and Lee, M. (2009). Pharmacokinetics of amitriptyline and one of its metabolites, nortriptyline, in rats: Little contribution of considerable hepatic first-pass effect to low bioavailability of amitriptyline due to great intestinal first-pass effect.Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 98(4), pp.1587-1601. Banker, M. and Clark, T. (2008). Plasma / Serum Protein Binding Determinations.Current Drug Metabolism, 9(9), pp.854-859. Caldwell, J. (2005). GW280430A: Pharmacodynamics and Potential Adverse Effects.Anesthesiology, 102(4), pp.862-863. Chengliang, T. (2012). Determination of plasma protein binding rate of vitexin.China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica. Doern, G. (2001). Fluoroquinolone Pharmacodynamics and Efficacy.Chest, 120(1), pp.319-320. EL-LAKKANY, N. and NOSSEIR, M. (2007). Pharmacodynamics of pentoxifylline and/or praziquantel in murine schistosomiasis mansoni.APMIS, 115(3), pp.184-194. Hee Lee, Y. (2000). Regional oral absorption, hepatic first-pass effect, and non-linear disposition of salmon calcitonin in beagle dogs.European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics, 50(2), pp.205-211. Hui, K. (2012). Determination of plasma protein binding rate of isopropylidene-shikimic acid.China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica. Jusko, W. (2012). Changes to journal of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics.Journal of Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics, 39(1), pp.1-1. Lemley, C., Wilmoth, T., Tager, L., Krause, K. and Wilson, M. (2010). Effect of a high cornstarch diet on hepatic cytochrome P450 2C and 3A activity and progesterone half-life in dairy cows.Journal of Dairy Science, 93(3), pp.1012-1021. LeWitt, P. (2014). Levodopa therapy for Parkinson's disease: Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics.Movement Disorders, 30(1), pp.64-72. Ra, I. (2014). Results on the Convergence of Braitenberg Vehicle 3a.Artificial Life, 20(2), pp.223-235. Savarese, J. (2005). GW280430A: Pharmacodynamics and Potential Adverse Effects.Anesthesiology, 102(4), pp.863-865. Tominaga, M. (2002). Effect of portal vein embolization on function of the nonembolized lobes of the liver: Evaluation by first-pass hepatic lidocaine extraction in dogs.Surgery, 132(3), pp.424-430. Wright, D. (2000). Application of fluoroquinolone pharmacodynamics.Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 46(5), pp.669-683. Yang, Z. and Rodrigues, A. (2010). Does the Long Plasma Half-Life of 4-Hydroxycholesterol Impact Its Utility as a Cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) Metric?.The Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 50(11), pp.1330-1338. YOKOMASU, A., YANO, I., SATO, E., MASUDA, S., KATSURA, T. and INUI, K. (2008). Effect of Intestinal and Hepatic First-pass Extraction on the Pharmacokinetics of Everolimus in Rats.Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics, 23(6), pp.469-475. Scully, C. (2008).Oral and Maxillofacial Medicine: The Basis of Diagnosis and Treatment. 2nd ed. Churchill Livingstone, p.408. Seyberth, H., Rane, A. and Schwab, M. (2011).Pediatric Clinical Pharmacology. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Walsh, B., Czervinske, M. and DiBlasi, R. (2010).Perinatal and pediatric respiratory care. St. Louis, Mo.: Saunders/Elsevier. Walsh, B. (n.d.).Neonatal and pediatric respiratory care.